Mary Shelleys Frankenstein (Blooms Modern Critical Interpretations)

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The latter had died in April in Missolonghi during his attempt to aid the Greeks in their struggle for independence, although it was not until May that news of his death reached England. The Last Man takes place on a vast scale and moves through the destruction of humanity by war 15 and plague until only one man remains. A far lesser work to the seminal Frankenstein, it is still affecting and conceptually powerful, a book not without its literary and cultural influences. First and foremost among those influences would be Byron himself. The Last Man may also have been influenced by the work of the German poet and dramatist, Johann Schiller, whom both the Shelleys had read.

Significantly, in The Last Man, the deaths of the Byron and Shelley characters, both of whom are portrayed as irremediably flawed, are not from the plague that wipes out the rest of humankind, but instead follow the tragedies of their real lives. Mary was by then earning her living as an early Victorian woman of letters, and she occasionally hovered on the brink of poverty.

Finally, her depressive tendencies meant that she felt slights and social 16 rejections more keenly, and these situations unfortunately far outweighed those friendships in which others were happy to accept her on her own terms. In the s, Mary Shelley was subjected to two particularly cruel blackmail attempts. In an itinerant Italian political rebel, whom Mary had initially supported both emotionally and financially, attempted to extort money from her on the basis of some affectionate letters she had written to him.

She died in at the home of her son and his wife. During the course of several days in June, the group was kept indoors by incessant rainfall. One evening, while they were sitting around reading some ghost stories, they each agreed to write their own horror tale. For several days, Mary tried to imagine such a story, but failed to come up with one. Given the very unconventional group of friends assembled that June, it is no surprise that so uniquely fantastic a story as Frankenstein was conceived.

Lord Byron, one of the most important figures of the Romantic movement, had already acquired a very scandalous reputation. Lady Byron left him amid horrendous rumors about his amatory experiences and Byron soon left London. However, before he left, Claire Clairmont pursued and seduced him while he was in the final stages of securing a legal separation from his wife.

During this interval, she had a brief affair with Byron, who made it clear to her that it was over. Claire then persuaded the Shelleys to take her along with them to Geneva. When the group finally 18 caught up with Byron, the latter was very displeased to see Claire once again. To further complicate matters, Claire then announced that she was pregnant and Percy had to intercede on her behalf to secure child support from Byron.

For his part, during the summer of , Byron was busy writing poetry, including the third canto of Childe Harold, which Mary cherished as it included their summer experience. Polidori is reported to have been a genius as a medical doctor who, unfortunately, had an obsessive love for Lord Byron and a misguided belief that his close association with Byron and Shelley would be enough to prove his literary talents.

Eventually, he was hired by Lord Byron, a poet for whom he had great admiration. During the next five years, Polidori made many suicide attempts. Frankenstein and His Monster: A Mechanical Exchange The story of a scientific experiment with unanticipated consequences or a modern Prometheus transgressing the divine and inviolable secrets of human life, Victor Frankenstein and his creature, creator and daemon, are inextricably bound to each other and share the same fate. In his attempt to create life in a laboratory, Victor Frankenstein produces a quasimechanical being, frightening in aspect, yet possessing an incredible sensitivity and intellect.

For the crime he has committed in crossing the boundaries of forbidden intelligence, and his subsequent attempts to conceal all knowledge and responsibility for what he has unleashed, Victor Frankenstein places himself, and his creature, beyond all possibility of redemption. Though we can identify the creator from his creation, it is not at all entirely clear what to make of them. Finally, the monster is often mistakenly referred to as Frankenstein, the name of his creator, eclipsing the fact that he is eternally nameless.

Thus, the question remains as to the true nature of both the monster and his creator, for we cannot speak of them separately. What follows is a discussion of an aesthetic paradigm, articulated by M. Abrams, that can be applied to gain a better understanding of their characterizations. Following a discussion of eighteenth-century philosophical theories of art and reality, Abrams provides an outline of an aesthetic model that emerged from this school of thinking and that was then applied to the criticism of literary works.

The essential properties of the organic or plant metaphor that would be useful here are that a the plant is an organism, originating from a seed, with the whole being greater than the sum of its parts; b as a natural entity, it necessarily grows and otherwise manifests productivity; c it evolves spontaneously from an internal source of energy; and d its structure is an organic unity with an innate and inviolable organization 20 whereas a machine is merely a combination of materials whose parts can be substituted because it lacks an inherent and inviolable unity.

In short, the difference between the plant and the machine hinges on the absolute possession or complete lack of an absolute integrity. The converse of these criteria is, of course, a definition of the mechanical imagination. Accordingly, an examination of Victor Frankenstein and his monster in light of this notion of an inviolable integrity, in both a physical and ethical dimension, can yield some important insights into their true nature. From a physical standpoint, Victor is clearly human. The biological son of Alphonse and Caroline Frankenstein, he comes from a happy and nurturing family and, in growing up, is a sensitive, intelligent, and responsible child who begins his professional education at the University of Ingolstadt with an enthusiasm for the natural sciences.

Unfortunately, it is also this enthusiasm that leads to his downfall as he becomes increasingly seduced by his own abilities to surpass all other scientists before him. The culmination of this seduction takes place at the moment he brings his creature to life. More importantly, however, is his belief and abject fear that he must never disclose what he has done. Thus, he is forever enjoined from speaking the truth and, consequently, can never again act in an ethical manner.

In the case of the monster, he is truly a manufactured being who is haphazardly put together from body parts that Victor has collected from charnel houses. Indeed, he is a composite of dead matter that lacks any organizational plan, natural or 21 otherwise, since Victor has no preconceived idea of how or whether the disparate parts will actually work.

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Victor simply learns as he goes along in the construction of his monster, making adjustments and modifications on an ad hoc basis. Thus the monster, created by artificial means in the laboratory and abandoned in the hour of his birth at the sight of his frightening aspect, is a being condemned to loneliness and rejection from all who look upon him. Yet the monster is a sentient being, demonstrating an aptitude for literary criticism as he interprets Paradise Lost and other classics as they relate to his status and teach him about mankind.

But above all else, the monster develops into an eloquence, arguing persuasively and, at least temporarily, convincing Victor that he is obligated to fashion him a female companion. Furthermore, the monster plays on our sympathies and, although we cannot absolve him for the crimes he has committed and the chaos he has caused, we do understand his motives.

Indeed, in those earlier moments when he acts out of love and a genuine desire to participate in the human community, the monster acts with integrity. Notes 1. The Villa Diodati had its own claim to literary fame. John Milton had stayed at the villa, while Voltaire, Rousseau, Gibbon, and Madame de Stael had all resided on its shores. Erasmus Darwin — was one of the founding members of the Lunar Society, a group of pioneering industrialists and natural philosophers.

Darwin had succeeded in causing a piece of vermicelli to move via influence of an electrical current. Abrams, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press : — As a young child he grows up in a nurturing environment and, along with his other studies, develops an interest in the occult scientists, which becomes an overwhelming passion when he arrives at the University of Ingolstadt. From that point forward, and despite all efforts to the contrary, he can no longer lead a productive or normal life.

The pursuit of his creature becomes his only mission. Elizabeth Lavenza Frankenstein is the niece and adopted daughter of Caroline and Alphonse Frankenstein who later marries Victor Frankenstein. A sweet and loving addition to the Frankenstein household, Elizabeth seals her fate in marrying Victor as she falls prey to the monster on her wedding night.

Justine Moritz is a servant in the Frankenstein household. She is a kind and loving young woman who is later framed, by the monster, and executed for the murder of the youngest of the Frankenstein children, William. Though Victor knows her to be innocent, he is enjoined from testifying for to do so would reveal his awful secret. A sickly child at birth, he plays a relatively minor role in the novel and remains the sole survivor of the Frankenstein family. Alphonse eventually succumbs to a broken heart following a series of tragic losses to the Frankenstein family.

Caroline Frankenstein is the kind devoted wife of Alphonse Frankenstein. Selflessly devoted to her family, her premature death is the result of attending her niece, Elizabeth Lavenza, who was recovering from scarlet fever. Before she dies, she exacts a deathbed promise that Victor will one day marry Elizabeth. When Victor begins to unravel at Ingolstadt, Clerval becomes his nurse and protector. Waldman is a professor at Ingolstadt, of whom Victor is very fond.

Victor wanders into his lecture in which Waldman delivers an inspiring discussion of modern chemistry, acknowledging the importance of the ancient writers. He encourages Victor to study science and allows Victor to use the laboratory once he has advanced in his studies. Krempe is a professor of natural history at the University of Ingolstadt. De Lacey is the patriarch of the De Lacey family whom the monster grows to love.

A kindly old man from France, he is the father of Agatha and Felix. Though once prosperous and well-respected, he is now blind and living an impoverished life in Germany. Robert Walton is a would-be poet turned explorer of the North Pole and the captain of his vessel. Agatha De Lacey is the mild-mannered and devoted daughter of the elderly De Lacey.

The monster is immediately taken with Agatha and her brother, and is moved by their devotion to their father. Felix De Lacey is the loving son of De Lacey. His concern and extraordinary efforts on behalf of the Turk are unreciprocated when the latter reneges on his promise to allow his daughter, Safie, to marry Felix.

Though he is never actually named, he is shown to be duplicitous 25 and self-serving. In order to save his own life, he promises to allow Felix to marry Safie, but reneges after he is set free. Kirwin is a kindly Irish magistrate who takes care of Victor after he is accused of and imprisoned for the murder of Henry Clerval. Kirwin is responsible for delivering Victor safely back to his father.

When the novel opens, dated St. Petersburgh, Dec. Adding to these fears is his responsibility for his crew and the effort he must expend in keeping up their morale. With this training behind him, it is with great anticipation that he welcomes his travels in Russia, where the snow sleighs are the means of transportation. He has now hired a vessel and is busy organizing sailors, whom he believes are fearless. But, despite his various preparations, Walton is depressed, longing for something even more important than his anticipated expedition, namely a sympathetic friend.

He is, moreover, heroically generous. Letter III is a rather short one in comparison to the two preceding letters. It is written on July 7th, four months after the second one, and reaches his sister through a merchant who is bound homeward from Archangel. Though Walton longs to see his native land again, he writes about the determination of his crew. Resolute in their mission, they do not allow minor dangers to deter them. Letter IV consists of three separate letters, the first of which is written on August 5th and is markedly different from the reassuring mood of the prior letter, and begins by stating that the events he is about to record are a truly incredible story.

The following morning, Walton finds his crew talking to someone in the water who was floating on a sleigh sitting atop a large piece of ice, with only one dog still alive. The stranger, who appeared to be a European man, will later be identified as Victor Frankenstein. Most remarkable of all, however, is that though the stranger, shivering and sickly, is in great need of rescuing, he will only come aboard if he is told where the ship is headed.

I never saw a man in so wretched a condition. The letter ends with Walton declaring that the stranger is the friend whom he had hoped to meet, stating that he loved him as a brother. While Victor thanks him for his concern, he also informs Walton that it is hopeless. Beaufort 30 fell into dire financial straits and, consequently, decided to leave town with his daughter, Caroline, in an effort to avoid humiliation. Alphonse, grieving for the absence of his trusted friend, finally located Beaufort and offered to help him, though the proud Beaufort turned him down. Beaufort eventually died of grief and his daughter, Caroline, was left an impoverished orphan.

Alphonse, as her protector, left her in the care of a relative. Two years hence, in the first of many strange relationships in the Frankenstein household, Alphonse decided to marry Caroline. Indeed, a great deal of critical attention has been given to the strange formation of the Frankenstein household. With the subsequent birth of Victor and his other sons, Alphonse relinquished his life of public service so that he could devote his time to the education of his children.

Though happily married, Caroline still longed to have a daughter and, by a strange quirk of fate, her wish was fulfilled. As to this last fact, we are told that Caroline and Alphonse were both determined from the outset that Victor marry Elizabeth as a means of solidifying the familial bond. Victor portrays his childhood as one of perfect bliss, where peace and harmony prevail. In addition to Elizabeth, we are introduced to his cherished friend, Henry Clerval.

Clerval is a sweet and creative boy, enamored of the tales of chivalry and romance from which he composes plays that he and Victor act out. As to their education at home, we are told that they were never forced to follow a strict regimen but, rather, were shown a purpose to their studies that in turn became a source of inspiration. However, into his portrait of an idyllic childhood, a sinister note is introduced when Victor tells us of his obsession with the works of Cornelius Agrippa — , a reputed magician concerned with the occult and supernatural; Albertus Magnus — , a German philosopher; and 31 Paracelsus — , a Swiss physician who wrote works on alchemy,1 chemistry, and medicine.

Victor became enthralled with a passion for probing the secrets of nature. This new interest soon turned to disgust due to its new and incomprehensible vocabulary of chemical terms. The chapter concludes with Victor mentioning that he assumed responsibility for teaching his younger brother, Ernest, who had been ill since birth and thus lacked the stamina for rigorous study.

He also makes a passing mention of his youngest brother, William, who at that time was an infant. Victor relates that upon turning seventeen, his parents expected him to study at the University of Ingolstadt 2 Chapter II. However, his departure was delayed when Elizabeth fell ill with scarlet fever. Longing to see Elizabeth, Caroline attended her daughter and became fatally ill as a consequence, leaving Elizabeth in charge of the younger Frankenstein children.

More significantly, Caroline once again reiterates her wish that Elizabeth and Victor marry one day and exacted this deathbed promise from them. Victor describes how mourning for his mother turned to reflection on the evil reality of death, a thought that further provoked his overzealous pursuit to find a means to reverse human mortality. While the family coped with their loss, and Elizabeth attempted to revive the spirits of their aggrieved household, Victor prepared to leave for Ingolstadt, a departure marked by sadness.

Accordingly, Victor arrived at Ingolstadt with a great deal of ambivalence. Though he felt lonely leaving his friends behind, he immediately became immersed in his scientific 32 studies. At the university, he met Professor M. Krempe, whom he found rude, but knowledgeable. But Victor was alienated by M. When Victor subsequently visited Waldman following a lecture, he expressed interest in becoming one of his disciples.

Indeed, two years passed in the laboratory as Victor abandoned all thought of his family and friends. He was now isolated in his relentless pursuit of the principle of life, and completely immersed in the study of physiology and the structure of the human frame. When he finally began to think of his family back home, an incident took place that further distracted him from reestablishing human ties, namely, his ability to make improvements to some of the instruments in the laboratory, which in turn brought him prestige at the 33 university.

Victor relates how he planned the next fateful step of fashioning an actual human being, someone about eight feet in height and proportionately large. In so doing, Victor became a supreme narcissist, poised to usurp divine authority and exhibiting all the false bravado that accompanies such claims to power. In so doing, Victor condemned both the monster and himself to a tortured 34 existence that would become progressively worse with each passing day, a never-ending agony that would ultimately conclude in their mutual destruction.

Though he ran away from the creature, Victor could find no reprieve from his guilt and anxiety. In fact, on this very same night, he tells Walton, he had a terrible nightmare in which he saw Elizabeth walking the streets of Ingolstadt only to discover that she was a ghost, resembling his mother. Nevertheless, he managed to find some solace when his dear friend, Henry Clerval, arrived in Ingolstadt.

Henry was finally able to convince his father to let him study at Ingolstadt, and had come to study foreign and ancient languages. For his part, Victor soon succumbed to a nervous fever that lasted for several months, most especially because he could not divulge the terrible secret of what he had done. True to his loving character, Henry ministered to Victor while the latter, having finally regained his composure, declared himself ready to communicate with his family.

She relayed news of the rest of their family, describing how Ernest had grown up to be a healthy and active young man. Elizabeth also told him that Justine Moritz had returned to the Frankenstein household. Now that her own mother passed away, Justine returned to live with the Frankensteins. In response, Victor wrote back immediately to his family, but was easily fatigued from his long illness.

Nevertheless, because his health was improving, he decided to show Henry around the university. However, Henry observed that the sight of laboratory instruments was loathsome for Victor, and quickly removed them. When the two young men next encountered M. Krempe, the experience was even more painful to Victor. Krempe was not equally docile; and in my condition at that time, of almost insupportable sensitiveness, his harsh blunt encomiums gave me even more pain Chapter VI begins with Victor describing the letter he received from his father informing him that his younger brother, William, has been murdered, and the details of that heinous crime.

Apparently, Alphonse, Elizabeth, William, and Ernest had gone for a walk in Plainpalais, when William suddenly got lost. Furthermore, a crucial piece of circumstantial evidence was discovered, namely, that a miniature portrait of Caroline that William had been wearing around his neck was now missing. Along the way, he observed familiar scenes that now caused him unbearable pain, and experienced vague intimations of impending horrors. I dared not advance, dreading a thousand nameless evils that made me tremble, although I was unable to define them.

It was now dark and the town gates of Geneva had been shut, causing him to spend the night in the village of Secheron, where he decided to visit the spot where William was murdered. However, in order to do so, he first had to cross a lake, during a storm, in order to get to Plainpalais, the scene of the crime. Indeed, the weather seemed to be in sync with his inner torment. In this brief instant Victor was also reminded of his own evil nature. When he finally reached home, Ernest told him that Justine Moritz was believed to be the murderer, as the miniature was found in the pocket of her dress, linking her to an obvious motive.

Victor was shocked and protested her innocence, because he alone knew with certainty that Justine had been framed. Tragically, in the interim, the incriminating circumstantial evidence continued to mount against her. In addition to her exhibiting very confused behavior following the murder, one of the servants had testified that she found Justine in possession of the miniature.

Nevertheless, Victor refused to believe that Justine would be unjustly convicted of murder, and repeatedly assured the family that she would be acquitted. Moreover, when Justine returned home on the night of the murder, she became hysterical and confined herself to her bed upon seeing the corpse. It was then that the servant found the miniature in her dress. When Justine finally testified in her own defense, her simple and honest statements were unavailing.

However, because the gates of the town had already been closed, she was forced to spend a sleepless night outside the 38 town, during which she resumed her search for William. Justine also stated truthfully that she had no idea why the miniature was found in her possession, her bewilderment only adding to her appearance of guilt. Though other witnesses knew her fine character, the hideous nature of the crime rendered them unable to speak on her behalf. When Elizabeth and Victor subsequently visited Justine in prison, she protested her innocence, explaining that if she had not confessed she would have faced excommunication.

Justine ultimately dies a condemned murderer. In truth, as we will be continually reminded throughout his narrative, there is absolutely no means of escape from his predicament, only a few fleeting instances in which he is sufficiently distracted. As proof of his inescapability, Victor has by now begun to anticipate future destruction and mayhem from his creature and, consequently, acquires an obsessive desire and firm resolution to take revenge. With its sublime and other-earthly landscape of great snowy mountains and glaciers, Chamouni offers only a temporary reprieve as we are told in the beginning of Chapter II.

The following morning, however, is rainy and foggy, obscuring the view of the Alps. It is now apparent that this is the most he can hope for. Instead Victor now calls his monster a devil while the monster, to its credit, appears eminently reasonable in response. In a calm manner, he asks Victor to simply honor the responsibility he has toward his creation and remains steadfast while pleading with Victor to fashion him a suitable female companion. I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed.

While the monster narrates his tale, Victor is anxious to determine whether or not he killed William and then framed Justine. The monster has been and will forever remain a strange being who has been left completely to his own devices and, having been neither nurtured nor schooled, has been compelled to act as his own parent at the same time Chapter III. After several days of alternating sun and darkness, the monster began to commune with nature, enjoying many new and pleasant sounds when, fortuitously, he discovered a warm fire and the materials by which it can be made.

However, food was becoming scarce as his supply of berries and nuts was dwindling and the monster had to endure hunger. Through a chink in a boarded-up window, the monster became intent on observing this family, both the young people and the old man and, in so doing, reveals himself to be a creature of keen sensitivity to the feelings of others. I since found that he read aloud, but at that time I knew nothing of the science of words or letters.

In yet another demonstration of loving kindness, the monster states that although he was previously wont to steal food from them at night, his newfound awareness of their own privation moved him to forage for food of his own and to collect wood at night for the benefit of the De Lacey family. This was indeed a godlike science, and I ardently desired to become acquainted with it. The monster spends the winter in this manner, sympathizing alike with the De Laceys in their joys and sorrows, and developing a profound appreciation for their ability to find happiness in the simplest of things, despite their poverty.

As he further relates to Victor, the monster also began to learn the fundamentals of reading by listening as Felix read to his father and sister.

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As he tells Victor, he saw 43 his own reflection in a pool, yet despite his feelings of selfrevulsion, his desire for a family was stronger. Furthermore, the advent of spring and the cheerful aspect of nature providing further inducements, the monster then resolved that he would eventually introduce himself to the De Laceys. The inaugural event was the arrival of a visitor on horseback, a strange lady with raven black hair and angelic features, who came to see Felix. The mysterious lady is Safie, a beautiful Arabian woman, with whom Felix appeared to be in love as his face lit up upon seeing her.

The monster also observes that the young woman speaks a different language than the De Laceys and that she was endeavoring to learn their language by repeating various sounds, concluding that he too can learn by her example. Furthermore, the monster was also learning to read what Safie was being taught. This newly acquired knowledge then led to further depressing thoughts as the monster began to ponder his own displaced status.

No father had watched my infant days, no mother had blessed me with smiles and caresses. Apparently, the old man, referred to as simply De Lacey, came from a prominent family in France, participating in all matters of culture and intellect. His son, Felix, was raised to serve his country, while his daughter, Agatha, acquired the status of a well-bred lady. They had previously lived a luxurious life in Paris, and were immersed in all matters of culture and intellect.

For some unexplained reason, her father had offended the authorities and was eventually condemned to death. However, it was generally believed that he was the victim of religious and economic prejudice, having been a wealthy foreigner. Though her father offered Felix wealth and reward in exchange for his help, this offer is later revealed to be a ruse.

Perceiving that Felix had fallen in love with Safie, her father promises her hand in marriage. True to his character, Felix, who was too sensitive to accept the offer, nevertheless was hopeful that, in time, he would in fact be with Safie. On the day preceding the planned execution, however, Felix helped the condemned man to escape to some undisclosed place in Paris and even obtained passports for himself, Agatha, and their father, giving them safe passage through to Leghorn, where her father intended to find a way back to Turkey.

Felix 45 was simply a means to flee France. The entire plot being soon discovered, Agatha and her father, De Lacey, were imprisoned, since Felix was living with Safie and her father. When Felix heard about what happened to his family, he resolved to deliver himself to the law in exchange for their release but, alas, they remained imprisoned for five months prior to their trial and, as a result of that trial, lost their fortune and were exiled from France.

Agatha and De Lacey eventually took up residence in a cottage in Germany, which is where the monster discovered them. In the meantime, Felix soon discovers the duplicity of the Turkish merchant who, upon learning of the suffering that the De Laceys now endured, made a very offensive gesture by offering a paltry sum of money, at the same time that he kept his daughter with him. During the journey the attendant became very sick and consequently died, but not before instructing their hostess regarding their final destination.

Thus, Safie was on her own when she arrived safely at the De Lacey cottage. Nevertheless, the story of deception and unfaithfulness notwithstanding, the monster is still in the process of learning his true standing in the human community and reiterates his desire to become a viable member of society Chapter VII. Sickened by what he read, the monster accuses Victor of consigning his creature to a life of despondency and solitude.

He further states to Victor that he considers himself to be another manifestation of Victor Frankenstein. Nevertheless, the monster had not yet tested his ability to find friendship and compassion in other human beings and, thus, was still hopeful despite his newly acquired knowledge of his creator. Lonely and desperate, the monster observed the joy that Safie infused into the De Lacey household and, thus, decided to seek their protection. His plan was to begin by approaching the old man when the others were out. During this time, the monster tells of his experiencing the change of seasons from spring into fall and the accompanying decay of nature, stating that he is constitutionally suited to the ensuing cold, though his true source of delight is with the warmth and colors of summer.

It was autumn when the monster finally mustered the courage to speak to the blind old man, introducing himself as a weary traveler in need of rest. At the very moment of this startling revelation, Felix, Safie, and Agatha entered the cottage and were astounded at the sight of the monster. Chapter VIII begins with the monster cursing his plight after this latest cruelty at the hands of people he had learned to love. Leaving his cottage at night, he began to wander, railing against his mean existence. During this interval, he had a chance to reflect on the events of the prior day and decided that his plan failed because it was imprudent to reveal himself to the children where he should have taken the old man into his confidence first.

As the monster approaches the De Lacey residence, he hears Felix speaking with his landlord and learns that the family is leaving because they fear for the life of the father. I bent my mind towards injury and death. During his nighttime travels, the monster endured cold once 48 again, all the while feelings of revenge were welling up inside him.

When he finally reached Switzerland, he found the sun to be warmer and he used the daylight hours to rest, finding some measure of gentleness and tranquillity. While enjoying these feelings of restoration, he came across a young girl who slipped and fell into a rapid stream, and succeeded in saving her life. But, alas, her guardian, terrified to see her with this hideous creature, shot and wounded the monster.

Upon reaching Geneva, the monster relates how he met a beautiful and innocent child whom he wanted to educate and keep as his own. The monster is clearly determined to visit the same injustice to which he has been condemned upon Victor and all those he loves.

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Following his spate of murder and pillage, the monster is now firmly resolved that Victor must create another creature with the very same defects, a female, to keep him company. In Chapter IX, the monster completes his tale and demands that Victor comply with his request for a companion. But this promise takes its toll on Victor, leaving him with a heavy heart. When he gets back to Chamouni the following day, his family is alarmed to see him so distressed and they immediately return to their home in Geneva while Victor seemingly regains some composure as he falls into the routine of everyday life.

They are enslaved by each other. Unable to fashion a suitable female companion for fear of creating another being capable of wreaking further chaos, Victor reneges on his commitment. Chapter I begins with Victor describing his ambivalence. While he was afraid of disappointing the monster, he was deeply concerned about unleashing a second creature.

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His father, noticing his erratic emotions, reminded him of yet another commitment, namely, that he was expected to marry Elizabeth as a way of assuring domestic harmony in the Frankenstein family. Victor assured his father that this would come to pass, but expressed a wish to tour the continent for the next two years with his dear 50 friend, Henry Clerval, before settling down.

For that matter, neither did Henry Clerval. As it was August and the time of vintage, Victor and Clerval enjoyed the magnificent scenery as they traveled along the Rhine. They left on March 27th and spent a few days at Windsor, followed by a visit to Oxford where they delighted in a countryside that was associated with so much of English history. Further on, their travels took them to Cumberland and Westmoreland, where they made some pleasant acquaintances, and then to the romantic town of Edinburgh. But these temporary diversions notwithstanding, Victor had become increasingly disturbed as he was reminded of his sinister mission.

Victor rented it immediately to use as his laboratory and living quarters. The hut, consisting of two rooms, was in miserable condition, but after making some repairs and buying some furniture, Victor fell into a routine of working during the day and walking along the stony beach at night. Ever mindful that the monster was watching and could appear at any moment, Victor was also plagued with serious misgivings about bringing his anticipated creature into being.

Nevertheless, Chapter II concludes with Victor having made considerable progress. Chapter III continues on a late evening while Victor, working in his laboratory, was thinking of the consequences of his current employment and the time that had elapsed since he created his first monster. At this very moment, the monster appeared with an extremely menacing expression, while Victor, in a panic, destroyed his nearly completed creation. Though Victor ordered him 52 to leave, he commanded in vain. In response, the monster stated very clearly that despite the reasonableness of his entreaties, Victor had recoiled from his ethical responsibility and, in that abnegation of that obligation, had indeed allowed the monster to gain ascendancy and moral authority over him.

His sole remaining fear was for those family members whom the monster had not yet destroyed.

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He could either remain in this barren terrain or return to his family and await the further sacrifice of his loved ones. While here, however, he fell asleep in the grass and, in a pattern familiar to both him and his monster, he awakened the next morning refreshed and happier despite the tormented feelings and violent happenings he experienced just a few hours earlier. A letter from Henry Clerval asking him to join him in Perth served to reinforce those feelings of well-being. Once again, he was compelled to return to his laboratory and relive the horror he so desperately wanted to escape.

When he wakened the next morning in his skiff, he found that he had been driven off course and was now totally lost. Hungry and fatigued, he found himself in a civilized yet hapless Irish town, which mirrored the experience of his monster who, coming in peace and friendship, instead became a pariah. Though at first Victor was relieved to find that the inhabitants spoke English, his hopes were quickly dashed when he was greeted rudely and told to appear before the magistrate, Mr.

Victor then learned that a dead body had been found under suspicious circumstances and that he was expected to offer an explanation. As he listened to the details, Victor was suddenly seized with a familiar dread. The body they recovered was that of a handsome young man who showed signs of being strangled, bearing marks similar to the ones found on his brother William. After graduating from Yale, Bloom remained there as a teacher, and was made Sterling Professor of Humanities in Bloom's theories have changed the way that critics think of literary tradition and has also focused his attentions on history and the Bible.

He has written over twenty books and edited countless others. He is one of the most famous critics in the world and considered an expert in many fields. In he became a founding patron of Ralston College, a new institution in Savannah, Georgia, that focuses on primary texts. Account Options Connexion. Version papier du livre. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Perhaps best recognized for the horror films it has spawned, Frankenstein , written by year-old Mary Shelley, was first published in Frankensteins Fallen Angel.

Making a Monster.