Dielectrophoresis: Theory, Methodology and Biological Applications

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Soundtrack for the biographical musical drama film based on the life of musician Elton John. Fourth studio album by the American indie folk group; their first since 's critically-acclaimed '22, A Million'. Out of stock - More expected soon. Comprehensive coverage of the basic theoretical concepts and applications of dielectrophoresis from a world-renowned expert. Sign up to the hive. Discover bookshops local to you. Enter your postcode and search for your nearest Hive network shop. The cells were sedimented by centrifugation at g for 3 min twice so that the cells could be purely resuspended in 1 ml of the RPMI medium prior to the pipetting.

The obtained cell suspensions were further diluted using the isotonic mM sucrose solution in order to prepare for the solvent having a required conductivity. We also used human red blood RB cells dispersed in the following suspensions. Freshly drawn whole blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers in their early twenties. The cells, suspended in a mixture of the RPMI medium and hematocrit of 3.

All of the dielectrophoretic experiments using the human RB cells were finished within 10 mins after drawing the whole blood samples. A schematic of the plug-in system used is shown in Fig.

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The microelectrodes comprised tungsten needles with a tip diameter of 0. The needle pair was inserted into a sample drop mounted on the inverted optical microscope TEU, Nikon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan , and the optical micrographs were obtained using a CCD camera Retiga Exi, QImaging, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada with a frame rate of 25 fps; incidentally, it was confirmed that the frequency resolution of FM waves due to the frame rate was always within the error bars for each data.

The plug-in technique allows the simple system to perform various noncontact manipulations of a single cell, such as pushing it into a narrow channel without any contact and orienting it toward the desired direction. Although it is often necessary to treat the cells in an isotonic solution with salt, it is easiest to implement the above DEP manipulations of cells surrounded by deionized water. Our plug-in microelectrodes see Fig. Despite the interference with the solvent flow, it is possible to distinguish the moments when the cell starts to leave the microelectrode surface and does the U-turn in the periodic trajectory, respectively.

Accordingly, we can see from Fig. Theoretical model. The homogeneous sphere model is the simplification of the spherical single shell model that regards the cell as a smeared-out cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane [ 9 ]. When the applied frequency provides the plus sign of the real part of the CM factor i. The sign of the real CM factor can be reversed to the negative at f X , the vanishing frequency of the real CM factor i.

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In the negative sign of the CM factor i. Force direction related to the frequency modulation. An illustration of the periodic U-turns due to the FM wave with its time-dependent frequency of f t covering a crossover frequency f X. The dielectrophoretic mechanism depicted in Fig.

Dielectrophoresis: Theory, Methodology and Biological Applications

We investigated the experimental accuracy of Eq. Experimentally, it is often necessary for the biological cells to be dispersed in an electrolyte. For MLVs, however, the use of deionized water is allowed during the preparation process of rehydration and dilution. In the experiments, it takes less than 30 s to observe a few U-turns of the targeted MLV from leaving to approaching microelectrodes. Frequency dependence of F DEP. It can be seen that F DEP is increased and saturated as f AC is higher, reflecting a typical behavior of the relaxation spectrum of the real CM factor.

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The solid line represents the best-fit result of Eq. Equation 13 is depicted by the solid line in Fig. Substituting these results into Eq. The elaborate treatment adds the squared term, the second term on the right hand side of Eq. Theoretically, it has still been claimed [ 40 ] that Eq. There are three kinds of biological cell used: TL and BL cells of human leukemia and RB cells of three human volunteers.

Regarding the instantaneous frequency, most of the experiments adopted the range from to 1. Each time we measured the leaving times of cells dispersed in a suspension, we looked for an appropriate spot at which a few cells having a similar size could simultaneously experience the FM-DEP above the substrate, and the microelectrode tips were placed at the measurable position using the micromanipulator.

We continued such scanning inside the cell suspensions until the FM-DEP trajectories of 10 cells were collected in total at a couple of appropriate positions. For each kind of cell, the measurement of 10 cells was repeated twice using different drops of the same cell suspension.

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As mentioned, it is indispensable for the implementation of the FM-DEP measurement at each spot to suppress the electrically induced solvent flows as much as possible. Hence, we traced only two cycles of the U-turn path so that the duration time of applying the electric field could be adjusted to be less than 10 s, and, correspondingly, the leaving time of each cell is given as the average of each trajectory, including the two U-turns.

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Substituting into Eq. Conductivity dependences of crossover frequencies. The best-fit results of Eq. The simple view applies to other electrokinetics, including the twDEP and the electrorotation by applying the FM wave that has the spatial dependence of the phase as well as the magnitude.

The AC- and FM-DEPs are associated with the real part of the dielectric spectra or the CM factor , whereas the electrokinetics due to the spatial gradient of the phase reflect the imaginary part of the CM factor as mentioned before. Therefore, the application of the FM wave to either twDEP or electrorotation will be required for completing the dielectric characterization the dielectric spectroscopy, in general using the electrokinetics.

We have treated microparticles such as MLVs and cells for the precise tracking of particle trajectories. In these experiments, sedimented particles as well as floating ones have been observed; we need to increase the magnitude of electric field for inducing the DEP of the sedimented particles which are likely to be aggregated. Accordingly, we have used the plug-in system for applying the FM wave to a targeted particle floating above the substrate.

Hence, measuring the velocity vector v t of a submicron to nanoparticle could provide the frequency dependence of the real part of the CM factor directly, which would be nothing but the electrokinetic FM spectroscopy.

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We are grateful to Mr. Yoshihiro Hatajiri, Mrs. Misuzu Matsuura, and Mrs. Yuki Yajima from Kochi University of Technology for the experimental help. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Nanoscale Research Letters December , Cite as. Open Access. First Online: 07 June Background The polarizability of an electrical phenotype is primarily due to the cell membrane and the cytoplasmic electrical properties that depend on the frequency of the applied electric field.

As seen from Fig.