Wireless sensor networks: applications-centric design
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The ITSs attempt to manage optimally the urban traffic by enhancing safety, reducing travel time and fuel consumption at the aim of improving our daily life. It works as a control loop system where it senses traffic and road conditions using surveillance or detection system. The gathered information is communicated to the decision system to be organized and analyzed in order to take appropriate decisions.
Figure 2 illustrates a simplified scheme of ITS. WSN based ITS can be deployed in many application scenarios and may fit into many categories or diverge slowly from existing ones. So, applications' categorization has to be flexible because answering the needs of the operators and end users is the first goal of tracing classification.
As the purpose of ITS is traffic monitoring and management to improve life quality, ITS applications classification can include:. It can be also used to guide ambulances and fire trucks. This is done through traffic optimization and real-time traffic light control. So, this category covers the remaining applications. Because of limited space, we restrict our study to: i Traveler Navigation Guidelines to minimize cost, time, and fuel consumption, ii Pollution Prevention which become a sensible field and needs more and more attention, and iii Efficient Parking Management which may be also a field of traffic optimization but it falls also in smart cities sub-classes.
Despite their benefits over conventional systems, WSNs face many design challenges to fulfil ITS application requirements. This stems from their inherent properties such as: wireless communication, absence of physical protection and resource limitations. Following a thorough analysis of ITS applications in our previous study , five main application requirements can be distinguished thus far namely: reliability, security, interoperability, end-to-end communication latency, and multimodal sensing. So, the lost in some data packets can lead to undesired system behaviour.
The harsh environment conditions and the lossy nature of wireless link raise the probability of lost which require reliable communication protocol. Real-Time: Despite receiving reliable information, real time reception may be also more or less critical regarding the application. Ensuring delay guarantee in WSN is challenging and must be dealt by the underlying solution. Security: Wireless communications impose more security issues namely, jamming and criminality attacks, physical compromising of motes, etc.
This makes security handling mandatory for any proposed WSN based solution. Multimodal sensing: An ITS application is subject to various type of environment measurement depending on the application and user's preference. Such measurements variables include: gas emissions, travelling delay, travelling tolls, etc. Consequently, the use of multimodal sensors by a WSN solution is more appropriate to efficient traffic management. Table 1 presents a summary on the degree of importance the above requirements should be ensured by WSN for each type of ITS applications.
Many urban sensing applications are developed thus far, including traffic monitoring, urban surveillance, and road surface monitoring. Some relevant projects are highlighted in the following, using their application field. Controlling isolated or interconnected intersections from ITS point of view is to optimize its capacity utilization through managing the intersection parameters . Many optimization algorithms were proposed in order to achieve this goal. Through the domain literature, off-line methods using historical measurements conduct to fixed time strategies while on-line ones using real time measurements give birth to traffic responsive strategies.
Our previous study  focused on this ITS application type.
In [,18,20], the authors use on-road sensors to implement traffic light WSN based solutions. In [19,29,30] authors use on-road and on-vehicle sensors, while in  authors use only on-vehicle sensors. The middle level is the transmission and management composed of the cluster heads which communicate between them and transmit information to data terminal, the benefits to use two frequencies avoiding interference intra-cluster and inter-cluster heads is clear.
The higher level is the decision-making level where the control is done to manage traffic and implement ITS strategies. The system is applied to parking management with a sensor per vehicle place to find available spaces and their location and inform drivers about it through interface. Sensors in each parking area form a cluster, sense empty places and notify the base station so that places will be displayed to users. The architecture used is efficient in many ITS applications but only parking application use don't need this architecture because the decision taken are not so complex and does not need so levelled system.
Boda et al. This work gains in cost by putting sensors in determined key locations rather than every vehicle place using a studied location scheme in the goal to know the number and location of empty places. There are three types of nodes which are the key location sensor nodes, the router nodes without sensors, and finally the base station which is simply the collecting node relayed to the computer.
Wireless Sensor Network – Theoretical Findings and Applications
Authors don't involve how to consume the available information or how to request for it. The relation between the number of sensors in the path and the surface is not explained apart the existence of a sensor at each turning lane and the half of the lane which are not sufficiently precise for long lane diameter. A Possible integration of the system with other ITS applications will enhance overall city driving.
From , the efficiency and optimization of traffic can be viewed from two perspectives. The whole ITS system goal is ensuring road fluency and minimizing accidents while individual driver goal is fast. The authors propose a minimizing travel time algorithm that uses road sensor nodes measurement to estimate lane travelling time and choosing the fast one. Collins and Muntean [23, 24] present TraffCon, which try optimizing the overall system efficiency rather than individual only demands by optimizing the whole network road capacity utilization through drivers re routing, changing lanes, etc.
This goal is reached using a client server architecture where the clients interact with the server part using WAVE Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. The vehicles equipped with GPS gather road state information and the server make decisions using optimization algorithms like genetic algorithms to be consumed by clients through displays or audio media. So, the clients don't take decisions by their own and the system guideline respect drivers' comfort.
Authors suppose that all vehicles are equipped which may not always be true. The goal of Iftode et al. This is done through scheduling in a flexible manner users' travels. To do, drivers reserve their travel through internet or in real time while driving. This permits them to drive in reserved lanes which cohabit with ordinary lanes. For ensuring system well work, real-time measurements of road state congestion, accidents, weather related state, etc is collected and sent to the decision maker server by different sensing mechanisms as vehicles' sensors, on road sensors.
It is clear that the reservations and system orientations speed, route changing, etc need users' displays to be present, localization mechanisms are also required. The system takes into account security and privacy requirements to satisfy users' intentions and ensure system well functioning. The idea behind Active highways is interesting but need more investigation to guaranty time bounds especially when internet reservation is done, the exact entrance moment may be relayed which perturbs the scheduling. The exit system from the high lanes needs more details because if the vehicle can't exit quickly it slows other vehicles in the lane.
The purpose of Jankuloska et al. The traffic information in SRM concern violations of traffic signals by drivers over speed driving, no respect of stop or direction interdiction signals, etc or dangerous situations as accident' happening. VSN vehicular sensor networks is used in addition to on-road nodes combining so ad-hoc and infrastructure based scheme.
The vehicle nodes, after sensing their environment, send data to the road node units which at their turn send the aggregated data to the data centre where decisions are taken. The Road units RSN communicate this decision to vehicle nodes. The Data Centre contains system data bases and is responsible of decision taken and transmission to authorities like SMS to police cars. The inter vehicles communication are permitted and enhance system functionality by exchanging hazardous information. A real test of the prototype has shown its feasibility and benefit. Authors propose this architecture for safety but it can be used also to enhance road capacity through sending the recommended speed avoiding congestion or to reroute vehicles through other empty roads.
The use of RSN unit may be enhanced by introducing sensors in it. The communication between RSN units is not also highlighted which can increase the performance. Communication's security does not also be introduced. The work in , presents a scheme to avoid vehicles collision using on-road and on-vehicle wireless nodes.
This scheme is based on wireless signal quality and strength, where stationary on-road nodes send to approaching vehicles information about the in-intersection vehicles after detection using magnetic sensors. The authors test their system on a real prototype. But this work does not present how to secure communication or ensure their reliability as loss of information, when drivers trust on it, results on catastrophes. Festag et al. The WSN composed by road nodes send the aggregated data concerning road state such as weather and obstacles especially in harsh situation like forests and icy zones.
The vehicles exchange. This architecture avoiding accidents is also used to ensure post accidents procedure as drivers' responsibility. Data and transmission security is ensured using soft mechanisms in this scheme due its high importance especially for post accidents as data may stay for long time before being requested. Road sensors and vehicles communicate using IEEE The solution was tested through a real implementation. The proposed scheme may be used for traffic management.
As it combines road side sensors, the overall system performance may be enhanced.
The use of access points may also enhance the application. Authors introduce the security of storage which is important and introduce security when requesting the databases. But storing the data in the WSN itself is not so interesting compared to the use of gateways especially for long time storage and the exploitation of stored data will be easier from requesting the WSN. The work presented by Fantacci and Chiti  servers, among others, to sense environment pollution level load.
It is composed by road sensors, in vehicle sensors, and interconnected access points. The access points gather information from the both nodes' type, aggregate and encode them, and send them to the mobile vehicles which are not restricted to a dedicated access point. The consumption of this information by the vehicles is through a displayer and serves to take appropriate decisions concerning congestion avoidance, pollution load balancing in the whole system, optimum route choice, etc. Authors focalize on efficient gathering and coding operations ensuring also reliability.
But they don't introduce inter-vehicles communication which can enhance system performance. Also the integration of this system with other ITS application to manage traffic is not introduced. The information presented to drivers may be augmented with orientations to guide drivers to take right decisions. The use of pollution information must be system based to avoid drivers' ignoring. The system proposed by Xia et al. The data centre sends utile information to end users in their vehicles and to traffic deciders to take appropriate reactions. As an example of the system functioning is traffic jam detecting and route changing.
The vehicle noting its speed staying low for a long time transmits a message to the sink through sources on-road sensors. This last, after a significant messages number receiving, broadcasts to vehicles and data server the road jamming state.
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The vehicles broadcast this message to enlarge the coverage. A system prototype was also tested by authors. The scheme used in this work is interesting. But authors don't give enough details on algorithms used to perform path selection. The integration of this system results' are not explored for traffic management, like adaptive traffic lights. Security communication is not introduced; even authors highlight its necessity and application reliability for well application running.
Hull et al. Each node gathers, processes, and delivers sensing data to a central portal, where the data is stored in a database for further analysis and visualization and constructing a reusable software platform for many mobile traffic sensing applications. CarTel nodes rely on wireless technologies Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, other CarTel nodes and mobile phone to communicate with the portal.
Car-Tel project includes traffic mitigation [31,32], road surface monitoring and hazard detection , vehicular networking , privacy protocols, intermittently connected databases. The model used by Cartel is very interesting especially the heterogeneity handling of different communication technologies. But including static on-road sensors and actor infrastructure to the same system network may enhance system performance, especially when many existing cars don't dispose onboard sensors or displays. Cartel permits drivers to know about jams and statistical data but don't give enough details on traffic management or guiding which may be added easily to it as cartel is conceived in a modular manner.
As smart phones offer complex computation, huge storage, and long-range communication, Urbanet proposed by Riva and Borceause them as multi sensor audio, video, etc devices creating a wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor network and act collaboratively to provide sensing coverage, collect and share data enabling users to exploit sensor-rich world. Urbanet is a middleware platform that enables applications running on mobile devices smart phones and vehicular systems to collect real-time sensed data in a decentralized manner without dedicated servers or Internet.
It optimizes resource utilization to the sensing activity, network conditions, and local resources. Urbanet proposes a mobile application for drivers to detect traffic jams in a city. It presents three middleware platforms for three different programming models. The model proposed in Urbanet is interesting but does not use collected data from different kinds of sensors to manage traffic.
Attaching Urbanet with existing infrastructure will also enhance the overall system performance and will permit using additional ITS applications. Urbanet interest on programming applications but does not give details on communication protocols and security mechanisms which needs also investigation. Nadeem et al.
Each vehicle is supposed having a computing device with a display, a short-range wireless interface, and a GPS receiver. Vehicles gather and broadcast information about them and other vehicles they know about, in an ad-hoc manner car-to-car communications. Localization algorithms using angles between roads and vehicles speed are developed in this project, too.
Traffic View model has been used in Traffic management protocol , but the integration of this model with on road sensors will enhance the performance. Also the integration of this model with the infrastructure will also help especially for requesting through internet based browsers.
ADSR uses location information to work out the angle between the node intending to transmit, potential forwarding nodes and the sink. This is then used to insure that packets are always forwarded towards the sink. The main issue with hierarchical protocols is that mobile nodes are prone to frequently switching between clusters, which can cause large amounts of overhead from the nodes having to regularly re-associate themselves with different cluster heads.
Another popular routing technique is to utilise location information from a GPS module attached to the nodes. This can be seen in protocols such as Zone Based Routing ZBR ,  which defines clusters geographically and uses the location information to keep nodes updated with the cluster they're in. In comparison, Geographically Opportunistic Routing GOR ,  is a flat protocol that divides the network area into grids and then uses the location information to opportunistically forward data as far as possible in each hop.
Multipath protocols provide a robust mechanism for routing and therefore seem like a promising direction for MWSN routing protocols. They both take advantage of multipath routing, which is facilitated by a 'blind forwarding' technique. Blind forwarding simply allows the transmitting node to broadcast a packet to its neighbors, it is then the responsibility of the receiving nodes to decide whether they should forward the packet or drop it.
The decision of whether to forward a packet or not is made using a network-wide gradient metric, such that the values of the transmitting and receiving nodes are compared to determine which is closer to the sink. Whereas, LASeR relies on taking advantage of geographical location information that is already present on the mobile sensor node, which is likely the case in many applications. There are three types of medium access control MAC techniques: based on time division , frequency division and code division. Protocols designed for MWSNs are usually validated with the use of either analytical, simulation or experimental results.
Detailed analytical results are mathematical in nature and can provide good approximations of protocol behaviour. Simulations can provide close approximations to the real behaviour of a protocol under various scenarios. Physical experiments are the most expensive to perform and, unlike the other two methods, no assumptions need to be made. This makes them the most reliable form of information, when determining how a protocol will perform under certain conditions.
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The advantage of allowing the sensors to be mobile increases the number of applications beyond those for which static WSNs are used. Sensors can be attached to a number of platforms:.
Data Centric Sensor Stream Reduction for Real-Time Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks
In order to characterise the requirements of an application, it can be categorised as either constant monitoring, event monitoring, constant mapping or event mapping. The monitoring applications are constantly running over a period of time, whereas mapping applications are usually deployed once in order to assess the current state of a phenomenon. Examples of applications include health monitoring, which may include heart rate, blood pressure etc.
Animals can have sensors attached to them in order to track their movements for migration patterns, feeding habits or other research purposes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hayes and F. IGI Global. Karp and H. Velmani, and B. Kaarthick, Lambrou and C. Kwangcheol, K. Kim and S. Kim and Y.