Ad-hoc Networks: Fundamental Properties and Network Topologies

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Ad-hoc networks - fundamental properties and network topologies

Network topology management for mobile ad hoc networks with directional links Abstract: This paper investigates efficient solutions for network topology management in mobile ad hoc networks that use directional phased array antennas PAA. However, the directionality of the PAA interface makes the design of network protocols very challenging, and raises unique issues that rarely occur in traditional, omni-antenna based mobile ad hoc wireless networks. Efficient link selection scheme design is critical to form a robust network mesh that is highly adaptive to user traffic requirement and dynamic changing network topologies.

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In this paper, we present a set of solutions to address aforementioned challenges. Our mesh formation and maintenance approach is based on a minimum cost link selection algorithm with connectivity prediction and traffic adaptation. We also implement our protocols in simulation and present the performance evaluation. Article :. Sonja Filiposka. Cyril and Methodius University, Karpos 2 bb. Macedonia borkica.

Energy‐Connectivity Tradeoff through Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration [2]. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple network "hops" may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network, while each mobile node operates not only as a host but also as a router, forwarding packets for other mobile nodes in the network. An important task of an ad hoc network consisting of geographically dispersed nodes is to determine the characteristics of the topology.

The quality of the topology can be evaluated according to several criteria including connectivity, energy-efficiency, throughput and robustness to mobility [4]. Further challenge in the design of distributed topology control algorithms is to ensure some degree of robustness to the mobility of nodes measured by the maximum number of nodes that need to change their topology information as a result of the node movements. TopoSim as scalable and open simulator allow many different types of topology simulations to be made. We have used TopoSim for gaining information regarding the number of common neighbors of two given nodes, the number of network connections depending on the transmission range and the nodes mobility, the connectivity matrix of the network, the hop distance between any pair of nodes in the network, the cluster coefficient of the ad hoc network that is being simulated, or the time each node spends in a given sub area during the simulation.

The Simulator class is the main packaging class for TopoSim. Simulator has associations with Area and Calculation classes that are used to perform simulations.

Wireless ad hoc network - Wikipedia

The Random generator is used for the purposes of scattering the nodes within the simulation area and for the needs of the mobility models when calculating the next node position in the network area. Every class that holds any type of topology significant characteristic of the network can supply the log file located in the Log class with the necessary information. That is, the new area, node type, mobility model or type of calculation is implemented completely independently and, afterwards, only attached to its appropriate parent class. The rest of the object-oriented organization does not suffer from any structural changes, and the additional code changes are minor.

Energy‐Connectivity Tradeoff through Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

The mobile nodes are scattered in an area with user defined shape and dimensions. The free space radio propagation model [7] is used to model the radio environment while assuming flat terrain and omni directional antenna for all mobile nodes. Thus the nodes have equal transmission range r and the node radio coverage is shaped as a perfect circle.

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If random values are chosen, the user only sets the type of distribution which can be uniform, exponential, normal or logarithmic. So far, the scattered nodes are one of kind, have the same nature. Once the parameters are set, and the nodes are scattered in the area, one can proceed to adding, deleting and moving the nodes. The mobile nodes movement pattern is set according to a given Mobility Model MM. There are several MM that are used in performance evaluations simulations for ad hoc networks [6]. The most commonly used models are Random Walk and Random Waypoint.

In the Random Walk MM, a mobile node moves from its current location to a new location by randomly choosing a travel direction and speed. Each movement in the Random Walk Mobility Model occurs in either a constant time interval t or a constant distance traveled d, at the end of which a new direction and speed are calculated. The mobile node then continues along this new path. In Random Waypoint MM the mobile node chooses a random destination in the simulation area and speed that is uniformly distributed between [minspeed, maxspeed].

The MN then travels toward the newly chosen destination with the selected speed. Upon arrival, the MN pauses for a specified time period before starting the process again. In the both MMs linear motion and uniformly distributed speed is used. The simulation is made in a given number of iterations, which represent discrete moments of time.

In every iteration, every moment of time, each node is moved to its new position according the employed mobility model while all the necessary calculation regarding the topology characteristics that the user wishes to explore are made. Therefore, the node transmission radius and movement pattern have a great impact on the network connectivity.

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  5. Nodes n1 and n2 and their transmission range In order to obtain the number of common neighbors two referent nodes for which the calculation is performed n1 and n2 are placed in the area see Fig. The coordinates of the nodes are , and , respectively. During the simulation n2 is slowly drifting apart from n1.

    In each iteration the connectivity matrix is updated and, at the end, the average number of common neighbors is calculated.

    Wireless Ad hoc Network Introduction

    Average number of common neighbors The obtained results shown on Figure 3 represent the average number of common neighbors depending on the relative distance between n1 and n2. With the increasing distance between nodes n1 and n2, the number of their common neighbors is decreasing. The transmission range is vitiated from m to 20m.