No Animals Were Harmed: The Controversial Line between Entertainment and Abuse
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Surely the empire that is the entertainment industry could thrive and continue to command large sums of money without the use of chimpanzees and other great apes. The advanced computer technology available to the entertainment industry, which makes it possible to simulate a chimpanzee or digitally recreate one, only increases the insignificance of using live chimpanzees in filmed media. Chimpanzees deserve protection beyond the meager safeguards afforded to them by current federal regulations and anti-cruelty laws--they need explicit protection from exploitation in entertainment.
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Federal regulations suffer from non-enforcement; both by agencies empowered to enforce those laws, and by citizens who cannot establish standing to sue for enforcement. Anti-cruelty laws are impotent to protect chimpanzees; the laws may prohibit the actions implemented by trainers to subdue a chimpanzee's natural behaviors, but enforcement is virtually impossible against violators.
If that were not enough, this first phase of their lives replaces a childhood that would have otherwise been filled with play and which they would have spent in close proximity to their families. After that they are subjugated to lives of further boredom and torture, locked in cages without companions or adequate stimulation. Chimpanzees and other great apes can be protected from use in entertainment without changing the law classifying great apes as property. Nor is it necessary to label them as persons.
We need simply to recognize their undeniable traits, their acknowledged culture, personalities, and abilities to think and feel that corresponds with ours. With the curtain drawn aside and the reality of chimpanzee training exposed to the light, the popular desire for great apes in entertainment should logically subside. What reasonable person would condone the daily beating of a two-year-old child in order to force her to act on cfommand? Chimpanzee actors possess the intellectual capacity of that two-year-old--and possibly a heightened awareness of pain and separation from their families.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to Bruce Wagman and Sarah Baeckler for their guidance and exceptional editorial assistance, as well as Karen Cunningham for teaching me so much about writing. According to Gandhi, the more helpless a creature, the more entitled it is to protection by man from the cruelty of man.
Many infants die when this crude ammunition scatters to hit both mothers and their clinging offspring. Pit traps, poisoned food, wire snares, nets and even dog packs are also used to kill adults defending the youngsters. Infants are often tied hand and foot with wire, causing circulation loss and septic wounds, and are trucked to urban centres in tiny cages or tightly bound sacks, often under heavy suffocating loads to avoid detection at checkpoints. Few receive care en route, so starvation and dehydration are commonplace.
While awaiting shipment overseas, more die of neglect in filthy holding pens and at airports where flight delays lead to exposure. Cramped in tiny crates, even carried in personal luggage, the victims often must endure days of travel through several transit points. Some infants manage, against all odds, to survive this ordeal only to die at the final destinations from cumulative physical and psychological trauma. In addition, it is estimated that [a]t least ten chimpanzees die for every infant that survive[d] more than a year at the final overseas destination.
Martin's Press See also, 55 Fed. Some might say that to change this status is an insurmountable barrier, unprecedented and impossible. Waisman, et al. Why should the law refuse its protection to any sensitive being? The time will come when humanity will extend its mantle over everything which breathes.
Dunbar, What's in a Classification? This threat makes it necessary for humans to reaffirm vigorously the ape's brutish animality and low status, in order to protect the clearcut boundary between humans and animals. For this boundary is one that we need desperately, in order to be able to go on killing and eating millions of animals every year, while we refrain from killing or eating humans. And, of course, the tragic history of today's entertainment chimpanzees--now bred in small cages--is that described in the Introduction.
Crawford Dog and Cat Hosp. In addition, Fable v. Brown, 2 Hill Eq. They are punished for crimes, which chattels could not be. Interestingly enough, animals in ecclesiastical courts were often charged with crimes and held accountable for their actions; in the sixteenth century a group of mice were represented by Bartholomew Chasseee, a distinguished French jurist, for feloniously eating and destroying the province of Autun's barley crop, in a pig convicted of eating a child was publicly burned, and in a sow was sentenced to be mangled and maimed and then hung for causing the death of a child.
Amerse, 14 Mich. Example: chimpanzees exhibit many technical skills, from using stone implements to making assorted plant tools for specific purposes, which are acquired by learning and feature cultural variation. Example: chimpanzees share with us many cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory, self-recognition, sense of humor, even some elements of linguistic talent.
Example: chimpanzees are so close to humans in body structure and chemistry that blood transfusions and organ transplants are feasible. Example: many emotional states are so alike for both chimpanzees and humans that each intuitively understands how to interact with the other. If they are suddenly frightened or excited they may reach out to touch or embrace. If they want a share of another's food, they beg, palm up. When they play, they laugh and tickle one another; when angry, they swagger and shake their fists. Unfortunately, Kat had a miscarriage, and she didn't come to the lab for several days Washoe looked down to the ground.
Then she looked into Kat's eyes and signed CRY, touching her cheek just below her eye When Kat had to leave that day, Washoe wouldn't let her go. Chimpanzees can identify themselves and companions in pictures and mirrors.
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They have a concept of self. The parallels to slavery are undeniable, especially when coupled with the psychological, behavioral, and emotional similarity to humans. For this reason, many young chimps who start their lives as pets or entertainers are given to laboratories when they grow too big to handle In the entertainment business, some [chimpanzees] live into adulthood in horrific conditions--controlled by shock-collars or beaten by their trainers, living in small cages, forced to perform absurd acts, or even drugged to keep their natural energy at bay.
If for some reason an adult is used then they are usually clothed with some type of shocking apparatus under their clothing. Most chimpanzees used in entertainment have their front teeth pulled or bashed out to prevent biting. This produces animals that enjoy learning and working.
The tricks are just too complex, and the rewards are just too small to hold their interest. The plain truth is this: the only thing that will make them stop behaving like curious, rambunctious chimpanzees and, instead, routinely perform mundane tasks over and over again on cue is abject fear of physical pain.
You can't hurt her. In fact, it's taught in a training school that is currently producing many future animal trainers and zoo workers. Clyde tried protecting himself with his arms and rolling in a circle, trying to avoid the blows which were ultimately fatal. He died of cardiac arrest a month after the beating. Times File.
For instance, in California, cruelty includes killing, maiming, torturing, or wounding a live animal with malice or intent. In addition, anyone who overdrives, torments, or deprives of necessary sustenance or shelter, or anyone who causes any of these actions to happen similarly commits cruelty.
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Such animal shall not resume work until it has been determined by the animal trainer or the veterinarian that the condition has been corrected. But a dog is something else. To say it is a piece of personal property and no more is a repudiation of our humaneness. Airlines, Inc. See Defenders of Wildlife, U. Competitive Enterprise Institute v. Espy, 23 F. She will not be required to do so. Whether she will do so is wholly within her control. Six years ago [plaintiff] decided that her energies could most profitably be spent on activities other than research.
That choice has determined the present state of affairs, in which she suffers no injury and will not do so unless she makes a further choice to subject herself to it.
Hodel, F. Morton, U. Weinberger, F. Defenders of Wildlife, U. Nevertheless, commentators generally agree the Supreme Court's standing precedent has changed based on the Court's perception of the merits and value of bringing a particular action or type of action.
United for Separation of Church and State, U. See also, Simon v.
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Welfare Rights Org. After today's decision the lower courts will understandably continue to lament the intellectual confusion created by this Court under the rubric of the law of standing The law of standing as developed by the Supreme Court has become an area of incredible complexity. Much that the Court has written appears to have been designed to supply retrospective satisfaction rather than future guidance.
Could they have worked some movie magic and crafted a replica fish of sorts, with convincing blood packs? Sea creatures, slaughtered in the billions for our palate pleasures, are often left out the conversation completely when we refer to animal use. And above that, the entire film crew probably did too. No matter how glamorous we perceive it to be, a movie set is not unlike our offices, our homes, and all the other places we see animals fall victim to use.
And the people responsible for looking after animals on set do not consider the ones already long dead and served up as relevant. Crocodile tears will be the only ones that are shed. Stone will portray de Vil, the villain who is obsessed with capturing the titular puppies in the animated classic. An adorable yeti will help close out a surprisingly promising September at the domestic box office. If estimates hold, those ticket sales would rank as the biggest opening weekend [ Camerimage, the film festival centered on the art of cinematography, will bestow its Lifetime Achievement Directing Award on helmer Peter Greenaway during its 27th edition, which will take place in Torun, Poland, on Nov.
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Known for his scenic composition and depictions of pleasure and pain, Greenaway has told visually riveting stories through such films [ Warner Bros.